JOTNW has registered prospective recipients of kidney, heart, liver and lung transplants. Patients diagnosed with end stage renal failure are registered for kidneys. Patients registered for hearts or livers have been judged to be in need of transplants by the Assessment Committee of indication for Transplantation. The conference of Lung/Heart-Lung Transplantation of the Assessment Committee of Indication for Lung Transplantation determines which patients are in need of transplants, and places those patients on the registry.

The Japan Transplant Society estimates that there are 1600 patients in need of heart transplants due to the fact that they are in the end stages of dilated cardiomyopathy or ischemic heart disease and suffer from decreased heart function. The number of patients in need of liver transplants due to the fact that they are in the end stage of progressive hepatic disease such as biliary atresia and congenital metabolic disorder or suffer from fulminant hepatitis is reported to be about 2,200 a year. Lung transplant targets patients with primary pulmonary hypertension, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary emphysema and bronchiectasis.

Pancreatic transplant targets diabetes patients who have fallen into a state of renal failure, as well as type 1 diabetes patients with unstable blood glucose levels even with insulin treatment, who have been struggling seriously with metabolic control for extensive periods. Small intestine transplants, meanwhile, target patients with short-bowel syndrome and functionally irreversible intestinal failure.